Eikev: Whipped-Up Anger? ~ Yehoshua Steinberg
Updated: Aug 6, 2020
Abstract for Parashat Eikev essay:
There are many synonyms for anger in the Hebrew language. This article examines one of them in depth -קצף- due to its especial repetition in the week's Torah portion. The uniqueness of this term is explored, and all the other words for wrath are surveyed and explained as well. We sincerely hope that the readers will walk away happier and calmer than before reading it!
זְכֹר אַל תִּשְׁכַּח אֵת אֲשֶׁר הִקְצַפְתָּ אֶת ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ בַּמִּדְבָּר לְמִן הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר יָצָאתָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם עַד בֹּאֲכֶם עַד הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה מַמְרִים הֱיִיתֶם עִם ה' (דברים ט:ז)
Remember, do not forget how you הִקְצַפְתָּ Hashem your God in the Wilderness; from the day that you exited the Land of Egypt until your arrival at this place, you have been rebels against Hashem (Deut. 9:7).
The root ‘ketzef’ (קצף) appears in Parashat Eikev more times than in any other Parashah. Other places in which these root appear in the Parashah include: At Horeb you הִקְצַפְתֶּםHashem became angry with you to destroy you (Deut. 9:9). Afterwards, when telling about the aftermath of the Golden Calf debacle, Moses relates that he prayed on behalf of the Jewish People because I was fearful of the wrath and anger, which Hashem קָצַף against you to destroy you (Deut. 9:19). Finally, later in that chapter when summing up the Jews’ misdeeds in the wilderness, Moses again says, And in Taberah, in Masah, and in Kivrot-HaTaavah, you were מַקְצִפִים Hashem (Deut. 9:22).
What does קצף mean?
Some commentators, including Ibn Ezra (to Est. 1:12) and Radak (to Deut. 9:22), explain that קצף refers to a very intense form of anger. They explain that the burning intensity of that type of anger is comparable to the burning intensity of boiling water. In fact, the Aramaic word for boiling (‘riticha’) is also used to denote anger. With this in mind, Ibn Ezra and Radak explain why Hos. 10:7 refers to boiling waters as קצף על פני המים, a קצף on the face of the waters. Tosafot Ha-Shaleim (to Ex. 16:20 vol. 7, p. 273) adds that just as the bubbles on the surface of water is a sign of the water boiling, so does the sweat on an angry man’s face show that he has reached the level of anger commensurate with קצף.
The prophet Ezekiel (Ezek. 9) tells of six “men” (who were actually Angels of Destruction) clad in linen, who were destined to destroy the people of Jerusalem. R’ Chisda (Shabbat 55a) lists the names of these six destructive angels: Ketzef, Af, Cheimah, Mashchit, Mishaber, and Michaleh. The first three names are all alternative words for anger, and the second three names all denote different forms of destruction. The Midrash (Lam. Rabba 2:3) relates that of all the destructive forces in play, Gabriel was the most potent. Eitz Yosef (there) explains in the name of Yefeh Anaf that this is because the first expression of anger used in Isa. 34:2 is קצף, and that term ostensibly refers to Gabriel, making him the most formidable of the destructive forces. From this discussion, we again see that קצף is an extreme form of anger.
However, others explain that קצף  does not denote anger per se, but rather is a term which refers to separation / detachment / and breaking. When God warns the Jewish People of calamities that are to befall them should they forsake Him by straying after idolatry, He says, Hashem angered against that Land… and Hashem removed them from upon their ground with anger, with wrath, and with great קצף… (Deut. 29:26-27). HKVHK explains that קצף refers to the separation / detachment from God which the Jewish People will have experienced when this prophecy of exile will unfortunately come to fruition. Similarly, the prophet Joel foretold of a plague of locust which will render the land desolate. He then describes the state of the land after the swarm of grasshoppers had had their way: It has rendered my vineyard desolate, and my fig tree a source of despair (וּתְאֵנָתִי לִקְצָפָה) (Joel 1:7). HKVHK explains that here too קצפה is an expression of detachment. HKVHK further notes that קצףis phonetically related toקצב which means to divide into pieces. For example, when Elisha cut up a block of wood, it says ויקצב עץ (II Kgs. 6:6).
Similarly, RSRH (to Gen. 41:10) also links קצף to קצב, explaining that the word קֶצֶב denotes an allocation which sets something as finite and gives it an end (effectively minimizing its potential by subjecting it to boundaries). Similarly, he explains that קצף denotes a form of anger, whereby one opposes something that he deems unfavorable, and seeks to bring an end to it (or at least to minimize it).
R’ Ephraim (student / associate of Ri”f) lists eight synonyms for כעס(anger). In contrast to the many commentators who hold that קצף is an especially powerful form of anger, he stresses that קצף is actually a less-intense form of anger, akin to short-lived froth. The following is a summary of the eight words for anger that he discusses: A. כעס is a metathesis of עכס, poison B. זעם is anger that causes זיעה, sweating C. אף represents “angry steam” emitted from the nose D. עברה is from the infinitive לעבור, crossing the limits of normal temperament E. חרון is “fiery” anger F. חימה is “seething” anger G. קצף is something that “amounts to nothing, like the scum on the surface of a pond” H. רוגז is anger that causes the entire body to tremble and shudder.
Similarly, the Vilna Gaon highlights the weak aspects of קצף, namely that it represents the beginning of the subsiding of one’s anger. When describing Achashverosh’s anger at Vashti’s insubordination, the Book of Esther describes: And the king became very angry (וַיִּקְצֹף), and his anger (חימה) burned inside him (Est. 1:12). The Vilna Gaon explains that קצף and חימה represent different degrees of anger. קצף denotes he who is visibly angry, i.e. his anger is externally manifest. He compares this to the froth (another meaning of קצף) upon the waters, which is evident to the naked eye. The word חימה, on the other hand, denotes a form of pent-up anger which remains inside a person, but is not outwardly discernible.
With this interpretation in hand, the Vilna Gaon explains the Talmud’s question (Megillah 12b): “Why was Achashverosh so angry?” He explains that the Talmud means to ask that if the king’s anger had already reached the level of קצף, then his anger should have already begun to subside (like water which reaches its boiling point, and then begins to cool off). In the case of Achashverosh, however, once he reached that critical mass (as the Bible describes him as having reached קצף), instead of subsiding, his anger continued to fester inside of him (which is why the Bible then uses the word חימה after using קצף).
The upshot of both R’ Ephraim’s and the Vilna Gaon’s explanations is that קצף is a weaker form of anger. What made them explain the word differently from the commentators cited above who understood קצף as the most intense form of anger?
Despite the distinct views regarding the level of intensity of the anger represented by the word קצף, all opinions make note of the second import of the word, namely froth - the scum which floats (צף) atop the waters.
As the words קצף and צף share the two-letter string צף, we will now examine the gamut of other words containing this biliteral sequence. We will see that all these other words denote concept or things that have similar properties to that which float atop the waters.
Menachem ben Saruk identifies seven distinct meanings derived from the צף root in the Bible:
Gazing / scouting (צַפֵּה דֶרֶךְ in Nah. 2:2 or צוֹפֶה פְּנֵי דַמָּשֶׂק in Song of Songs 7:5).
Covering (מְצֻפֶּה עַל חָרֶשׂ in Prov. 26:23).
Hoping / Anticipating (אֶעֱרָךְ לְךָ וַאֲצַפֶּה in Ps. 5:4, בְּצִפִּיָּתֵנוּ צִפִּינוּ in Lam. 4:17). 
Flour or honey which floats atop water (צוּף דְּבַשׁ in Prov. 16:24, וְנֹפֶת צוּפִים in Ps. 19:11, according to one understanding in Sota 48b). 
Something which swims on the water or a current of water (אֶרֶץ צָפָתְךָ in Ezek. 32:6, וַיָּצֶף הַבַּרְזֶל in II Kgs. 2:2).
Chirping of a bird (הַמְצַפְצְפִים וְהַמַּהְגִּים in Isa. 8:19).
Salix scouleriana (i.e. a willow tree with many branches, צַפְצָפָה שָׂמוֹ in Ezek. 17:5).
Shoresh Yesha (entry צפה) explains that three of these usages are related to heights or loftiness. Thus: A. צפה in the sense of gazing / scouting indicates looking down from atop a lookout post or high vantage point. B. מְצֻפֶּה (covering) involves adding an extra layer on top of that which already exists. Finally: C. וַאֲצַפֶּה by hoping and anticipating one raises his eyes to God Above to bring good tidings. We may add that the word צף itself, in the sense of floating atop waters, is also perforce related to heights or loftiness because those items which float are positioned at the top of the body of water (and by virtue of this elevation, they also serve to cover [as in מְצֻפֶּה / ציפוי] that which is below them). When God drowned the Egyptians at the Red Sea, the Bible says that: He הציף upon them the waters of the Red Sea (Deut. 11:4). RSRH comments that הציף is related to covering, because He covered the Egyptians with an upper layer of water, thus burying them in their watery graves.
Regarding the word צוּף (ונפת צופים), the meaning of the term is subject to dispute. RSRH (to Ps. 19:11) cites some who say that it refers to flour which floats upon on the top of the sieve after the heavier elements have dropped below (compare with RSRH to Ex. 16:31). He then quotes others who explain that it refers to the choicest form of honey, which is made from the nectar that bees gather from the flora that grow on mountains. In any event, all of these idea - covering, floating, and mountains - are related to the concept of heights or loftiness.
A bird’s chirp is called a צפצוף (e.g. Is. 38:14), and a bird is a מצפצף. The connection between birds and the central meaning of צף is fairly plain: given that birds normally gaze / scout from great altitudes; hence the thematic link between the chirping of a bird and heights or loftiness.
Likewise, Menachem's last subcategory, the צַפְצָפָה (Salix scouleriana) is also linked to the concept of heights or loftiness. The Talmud (Sukkah 34a) rules that theצַפְצָפָה is a certain type of willow, which is disqualified from use as Aravot on Sukkot. The Talmud infers this from Lev. 23:40 which calls for brook willows - to the exclusion of the צפצפה, which is a type of willow that grows on mountain heights, not near a brook. By virtue of its mountainous habitat, the Salix scouleriana is clearly associated with heights or loftiness. CS (entry צף) takes this a step further, explaining that the Salix scouleriana is called צפצפה, because it grows on the mountain and “looks down” from its lofty position towards the other types of willows which are located at lower places. In his estimation, צפצפה is also associated with gazing or scouting. 
To summarize, the root צף has five interrelated meanings: Primarily, it refers to A. heights or loftiness. As derivatives of that meaning, צף refers to B. צְפִיָּה (gazing or scouting) which denotes looking down from a higher position, and C. צִפִּיָּה (hoping and anticipating) which places one’s situation in the hands of a Higher Authority. D. ציפוי (covering), which is a layer situated on top of another entity. And finally, E. הַצָּפָה, another derivative of צף, refers to the property of items which float on top bodies of water.
These five meanings form the basis of another eight roots which include the two-letter string צף:
קצף (boiling) - The nature of bubbles is to rise to the top of the water. An ancillary effect of this foam is that it serves as a covering for the waters beneath it. Isa. 54:8 tells of God concealing His presence due to a קצף, perhaps hinting to the foam’s quality of covering the contents of the waters below, so does God “conceal” Himself and hide His presence. (Parenthetically, we should note that most instances of the word קצף in the Bible refer to anger and are accompanied with the word על to denote who caused this anger to bubble. This is in contrast to all the other synonyms for anger for which the word על denotes the reason for the anger or upon whom that anger causes lashing out, as opposed to who caused the anger. Perhaps this can be taken as an allusion to the that קצף in the sense of anger – at least when we are speaking of God’s anger - contains within it the consolation within the punishment, meaning that even when the Jewish People deserve to be destroyed, the Merciful One will “fulfill” this decree in a more toned-down way, as we will explain later on in this essay.
צפה/צפת (cover/candelabrum) - This root has four different uses in the literature:
A. The prophet Isaiah foretells the eventual downfall of Babylonia, and exhorts his listeners to prepare for the ensuing festivities by setting the table, lighting the candelabrum (צפה הצפית), eating and drinking (Isa. 21:5). That צפית refers to a candelabrum is found in the Midrash (Num. Rabba 15:7), and its connection to gazing or scouting is obvious: a candelabrum radiates light which allows one to see better, especially the Menorah of the Temple which is said to have illuminated the entire world.
B. In II Chron. 3:15, the word צפת appears as a crown or cover of the two pillars in the Temple. This is certainly related to both heights / loftiness and covering. Although Radak seems to conflate these two words by putting them in one entry in his lexicon, it seems that they are simply homonymous words with very different meanings.
Two more uses of צפת appear in later sources:
C. צפת (Safed) - This is the name of a city in the Holy Land, thus called on account of it appearing as a crown atop a mountain or because of the beacons of light that shone from that location for spreading news about the New Moon.
צפר (multiple meanings) - Menachem divides words related to this three-letter root into four subcategories: A) צפורן, found in Deut. 21:12, refers to a fingernail. B) צפיר, found in Dan. 8:5, refers to a goat. C) צפֹּר, found in Lev. 14:6, refers to a bird. D) צְּפִירָה, found in Ezek. 7:7, refers to light / morning. RSRH (to Gen. 7:14) writes that the first three of these meanings of צפר are related to covering. He explains that צפורן covers one’s fingers, צפיר focuses on the fine hair which cover a goat’s body, and צפֹּר refers specifically to birds, i.e. because they are covered with feathers. We may add that Menachem's fourth sub-category, צְּפִירָה (light / morning), is also related to covering as Ps. 104:2 describes God as enveloping the world in light, like one covers oneself with clothes.
צפן (hidden / north) - Proverbs 1:11 uses the word נִצְפְּנָה, which Rashi and Metz. David explain refers to something hidden (e.g. an ambush). R’ Saadia Gaon, on the other hand, explains that it refers to something upon which one’s gaze is directed (thus connecting it to צפה in the sense of gazing). Interestingly, YS (vol. 2 pg. 56a) explains that צפה - which we earlier defined as staring or scouting from a high place - refers specifically to an observer whose own location is strategically hidden. He can see, but cannot be seen. Accordingly, both meanings are related to the idea of covering, as one who is hidden can be said to be concealed (see footnote for examples of using the term צפה for hidden and gazing in the very same sentence). The word צָפוֹן (north) also refers to hidden, as CS (entry צף) explains, this is because the sun is hidden for much of the year in the extreme north.
צפע (viper) - Jeremiah proclaims that God will send forth צפעונים, which are poisonous snakes which cannot be subdued by charmers (Jer. 8:17). Why is this type of snake called a צפע? The Talmud (Avoda Zara 30b) explains that there are three types of snake venom: 1. The venom of a young snake sinks into water, 2. the venom of a middle-aged snake bubbles upwards, and 3. the venom of an elderly snake floats (צף) atop the water. Based on this, Yikra de-Shichni (pg. 18) explains that the snakes which Jeremiah mentioned are called צפעונים because they are elderly snakes whose venom floats (צף) on the water. R’ Shlomo Aharon Wertheimer in Biurei Shemot ha-Nirdafim (pg. 235) writes that the Rabbis understood that צפעונים is a contraction of צף (float) and עני (poor) because Avot DeRabbi Natan (version 2, ch. 43) says that צפעונים are called such because when somebody experiences their bite, his hair flies away (פורח=צף) and his skin dissolves (like a poor man who experiences physical deformities).
צפח (flour) - According to R’ Eliezer (cited in Mechilta, Beshalach Parashah 5), when the Torah compares the manna to a צפחית in honey (Ex. 16:31), this refers to flour which is called צפח because it floats (צף) on the top of the sieve (similar to what we previously wrote concerning the word צוף/צופים).
רצפה (floor / carpet) - Although a רצפה is that place upon which people’s feet tread (e.g. II Kgs. 16:17), the word רצף also denotes coals (see I Kgs. 19:6). RSRH (in his introduction to Isaiah) explains the thematic link between these two otherwise seemingly unrelated imports: the power of coal is not readily evident from the outside, because a coal can be burning hot inside while superficially appearing to be thoroughly spent. Similarly, the word רצף appears in Song of Songs 3:10 as a way of describing how the inside of a bridegroom’s canopy is decked with love. In that case, רצף refers to something embedded deep inside, like something covered with many outer layers. In a similar vein, רצף refers to a paving, which covers the stone ground and upon which man’s foot treads. All of this, of course, shows that רצףis related to covering, which is also related to the heights or loftiness meaning of צף, as previously explained.
שצף (multiple meanings) - As mentioned above, Isa. 54:8 portends of God concealing Himself out of a שצף קצף. We already explained that קצף refers to anger, but what does שצף mean? Rashi cites Targum Jonathan and Donash as explaining that שצף means a little bit. Tosafot Rid also cites this explanation, but proposes another understanding as well: He says that שצף קצף means during a time of anger, i.e. when a current of anger flows. Torah Temimah (Haftarat Noach) relates the word שצף to שטף (current, flow). Now, these two interpretations appear to contradict one another, the first meaning a small amount, whereas the second refers to a powerful flow of, presumably, copious quantities of rushing water. Yet, we believe that the two meanings can actually be reconciled, as will be explained at the end of the article below.
We previously questioned R’ Ephraim and the Vilna Gaon’s opinion that קצף denotes a weaker form of anger than does חימה. To answer this, we propose that the word קצף denotes a form of anger which can potentially be assuaged, and that the angered party can be appeased. We find several instances in which prophecies of doom and destruction have messages of consolation and inspiration embedded within them.
For example, in Lev. 26:32, God promises to make the Land desolate should the Jews fail to keep the Law. However, Rashi (there) explains that embedded in this curse is a hint of consolation, as the land will remain desolate only because its foreign conquers will not become enamored by it. Similarly, Pesikta Rabbati (11) says that even though God intends to “pluck off” many of the Jews by killing them in retaliation for their sins, He also had allowed their population to grow exponentially like the sand which cannot be counted. 
This dual meaning (of an ominous, yet bright future) is also found in conjunction with the word קצף. Midrash Lekach Tov (to Song of Songs 2:6) says: “It is a great praise of God that while He pushes away with His left hand, He brings closer with His right hand.” To that effect, the Midrash cites two verses which use the word קצף. Isa. 54:8 says that God will conceal the Jewish People on account of His שצף קצף, which the consensus of commentators (cited above) understand refers to a little bit of anger, thus toning down the rhetoric. Similarly, Isaiah again offers words of consolation when explaining that God will not be angry (קצף) forever (Isa. 57:16)—this too highlights the limitations of His anger, all the while denoting said anger. Both of these verses are included in the Seven Haftarot of Consolation (שב דנחמתא) read in the seven weeks following Tisha B’Av. This means that קצף does not simply denote anger, but also connotes the possibility of tempering that anger.
The word קצף appears again as an expression of hope in the end of Lamentations. The very last verse reads: For even if You have surely rejected us, You have been angry (קצף) upon us very much (Lam. 5:22). The Midrash (Lam. Rabba 5:22) explains the couplet as follows: “If You have rejected us, then there is no hope, but if You are angry (קצף) with us, then there is hope.” As Matnot Kehunah (there) explains, rejection is complete and cannot be rectified, but anger on the other hand can be alleviated and mollified by appealing to He who is angry and appeasing Him. Alternatively, Matnot Kehunah explains that the word “very much” (מְאֹד) is related to a set measurement (מידה), as if to imply that God’s wrath is measured and is not limitless. Again, we see here that the word קצף denotes anger, but (almost paradoxically) also carries a message of hoping and anticipating (which are alternate meanings of the root,צף as per above).
Accordingly, even if שצף קצף means a current of anger, it still denotes a one-time occurrence, like a wave, not an everlasting outpouring of wrath. The קצף of anger is related to the קצף of water in that just as the bubbles on the surface of the water are really just pockets of air, but there is nothing inside them, so is the anger of קצף only a temporary, weaker form of anger, from which there is nothing to truly fear. 
We pray that God should have mercy on us and bring an end to His wrath and anger [קצף], from the most severe to the lightest. And may we merit His consolations, as the prophet says in our Haftarah: For Hashem had comforted Zion, He has comforted all her ruins, He made her wilderness like Eden, and her wasteland like the Garden of Hashem; happiness and joy will be found there, thanksgiving and the sound of music! (Isa. 51:3). Amen.
 דב' ט:ח - וּבְחֹרֵב הִקְצַפְתֶּם אֶת ה' וַיִּתְאַנַּף ה' בָּכֶם לְהַשְׁמִיד אֶתְכֶם.  דב' ט:יט - כִּי יָגֹרְתִּי מִפְּנֵי הָאַף וְהַחֵמָה אֲשֶׁר קָצַף ה' עֲלֵיכֶם לְהַשְׁמִיד אֶתְכֶם וַיִּשְׁמַע ה' אֵלַי גַּם בַּפַּעַם הַהִוא.  דב' ט:כב - וּבְתַבְעֵרָה וּבְמַסָּה וּבְקִבְרֹת הַתַּאֲוָה מַקְצִפִים הֱיִיתֶם אֶת ה'.  מלה המשמשת כנרדפת לכעס בלשונם ז"ל בכ"מ (ברכ' ז., ר"ה לב:, סנהד' מח: [אמ"ש]).  אב"ע אסתר א:יב - ויקצוף המלך - הראה קצף יוצא מפיו מרוב הכעס, כמו: כקצף על פני המים (הושע י:ז); רד"ק דב' ט:כב - מקציפים הייתם את ה', ענין הרתיחה בכעס, ומזה נאמר לרתיחת המים בחוזק הרוח כקצף על פני המים (הושע י:ז) וכן תרגומו שם: כריתחא על אפי מיא.  תוס' השלם שמות טז:כ (חלק ז, דף רעג) - ויקצוף כעס גדול כקצף על פני המים כך זיעה בפניו.  ל' הכתוב היא "וּמִמִּקְדָּשִׁי תָּחֵלּוּ", אמנם דרשוהו ז"ל (שבת נה.) כמו "מְקוּדָּשַׁי" - היינו צדיקי הדור שלא מיחו.  שבת נה. - אלו בני אדם שקיימו את התורה כולה... וְהִנֵּה שִׁשָּׁה אֲנָשִׁים בָּאִים מִדֶּרֶךְ שַׁעַר הָעֶלְיוֹן אֲשֶׁר מָפְנֶה צָפוֹנָה וְאִישׁ כְּלִי מַפָּצוֹ בְּיָדוֹ וְאִישׁ אֶחָד בְּתוֹכָם לָבֻשׁ בַּדִּים (יחז' ט:ב)... ומאן נינהו ששה אנשים? אמר רב חסדא: קצף, אף, וחימה, ומשחית, ומשבר ומכלה.  איכ"ר ב:ג - א"ר יוחנן למלאך קשה שביניהם אמר, זה גבריאל... ג' דברים היה אותו מלאך משמש, קסנטור סופר המלך לעניני דין, ספקלטור ההורג את הנידונים למות, וכהן גדול... ספקלטור, שנאמר: כִּי קֶצֶף לַה' עַל כָּל הַגּוֹיִם וְחֵמָה עַל כָּל צְבָאָם הֶחֱרִימָם נְתָנָם לַטָּבַח (ישעיה לד:ב); עץ יוסף - החרימם נתנם לטבח - לפי מה שנאמר בבמה בהמה (שבת נה.) דששה אנשים אלו הם קצף, אף, וחימה, משחית, ומשבר ומכלה, אתי שפיר הך ילפותא. דמסתמא גבריאל הוא הנקרא קצף, שהוא הקשה וראשון שביניהם. ומכיון דהתם כתיב: וקצף ה' על כל הגוים החרימם נתנם לטבח, שמעינן דע"י גבריאל דאיקרי קצף, הוא שנתנם לטבח. ומעין כך פי' גם בעל הזרע יעקב (ר' יעקב בן חיים פייבוש, גרודנה, תקמ"ח) עה"פ אַל בְּקֶצְפְּךָ תוֹכִיחֵנִי (תה' לח:ב).  וכך גם "חימה", ע"ש.  דב' כט:כו-כז - וַיִּחַר אַף ה' בָּאָרֶץ... וַיִּתְּשֵׁם ה' מֵעַל אַדְמָתָם בְּאַף וּבְחֵמָה וּבְקֶצֶף גָּדוֹל.  ויש שדייקו דברים דומים גם מפי' ספורנו, שנראה כמקשר בין "קצף" לגלות: זכ' א:ב - קָצַף ה' עַל אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם קָצֶף; ספורנו - קצף להגלותם ולא ליסרם בארצם. וי' כה:יח - וִישַׁבְתֶּם עַל הָאָרֶץ לָבֶטַח; ספורנו - וישבתם על הארץ לבטח. שלא תגלו ממנה... ועל הפך: בַּעֲוֹן בִּצְעוֹ קָצַפְתִּי (ישע' נז:יז). שם כו:יא - וְנָתַתִּי מִשְׁכָּנִי בְּתוֹכְכֶם וְלֹא תִגְעַל נַפְשִׁי אֶתְכֶם; ספורנו - ולא תגעל נפשי אתכם. לעולם כאמרו לא יוסיף להגלותך (איכה ד:כב) וכאמרו כן נשבעתי מקצף עליך ומגער בך (ישע' נד:ט).  כדהביא רד"ק שם: וי"מ לקצפה לקליפה -וכ"מ כקצף על פני המים- ר"ל שיסיר הארבה הקליפה שיאכלנה.  הכתב והקבלה דב' כט:כז - עיקר הוראתם פירוד הדבקות וריחוק האחדות; וכן שם קצף הנאמר אצלו ית' יש לפרשו... מענין הבדל ופירוד הנעשה בינו ית' לבין ברואיו... וכן: שָׂם גַּפְנִי לְשַׁמָּה וּתְאֵנָתִי לִקְצָפָה (יואל א:ז). והוא דומה לשם קצב בבי"ת, אשר פעל ממנו: וַיִּקְצָב עֵץ (מ"ב ו:ו), שהוא על הבדלת הדבר לחלקיו.  וראה גם רשר"ה לדב' ט:ז.  רש"ר הירש בראשית מא:י - פרעה קצף על עבדיו - 'קצף' קרוב ל'קצב'... 'קצב': להפעיל כח גדול כדי לשים קץ, גבול ומטרה - לקבוע. 'קצף': להתנגד לדבר בחמת זעם, ולשים לו קץ, או לפחות הגבלה.  בפירושו לפסוק "וַיִּתְעַבֵּר ה' בִּי לְמַעַנְכֶם" (דב' ג:כו). דבריו מובאים גם בחיד"א (נחל קדומים, ואתחנן).  רבינו אפרים, ואתחנן (ת"ד) - ויתעבר ה' בי למענכם - שמונה שמות יש לכעס וכלם על שם המעשה. 1. כעס 2. זעם 3. אף 4. עברה 5. חרון 6. חימה 7. קצף 8. רוגז. כעס - הוא ארס [חיד"א: "כעס" הן אותיות "עכס"]. זעם - שכל גופו מזדעזע ונרתע בכעס וזיעה נופלת עליו. אף - עלה עשן אפו. עברה - מעבירו מדעתו ומדעת קונו. ומוסיף הסבר שני לכך: ויתעבר - עבר על מדתו התרומיה, כי זעמו רגע ועתה לזמן ארוך. חרון - שורף כל גוף האדם כאש בוערה. חימה - שמחמם כל גופו. קצף - דבר שאינו לכלום, כקצף על פני המים פי' זוהמא. רוגז - מרגיז כל גופו של אדם.  כפי שהדגישו הראשונים בתיאורם לקצף שעל המים: יואל א:ז - שָׂם גַּפְנִי לְשַׁמָּה וּתְאֵנָתִי לִקְצָפָה; אב"ע - לקצפה - כמו קצף על פני מים שאין בו ממש; ר' אליעזר מבלגנצי1 - לקצפה - כקצף הנימס על פני המים. תת הערות: 1פירוש ליחזקאל ותרי עשר (וארשא, תרע"ג מכ"י עתיק). נולד דתת"ק (1140 למנ'); מגדולי הפרשנים בתחילת המאה הי' לאלף הה'. מבלגנצי שבצרפת, בן דורו הצעיר של רשב"ם, ואולי היה תלמידו (ספר עידן הראשונים, דף 149).  אסתר א:יב - וַיִּקְצֹף הַמֶּלֶךְ מְאֹד וַחֲמָתוֹ בָּעֲרָה בוֹ.  השווה לתורה תמימה לאיכה פרק ה', הערות מ"ד ומ"ה.  קול אליהו אסתר אות קלו - ויקצוף המלך דהנה קצף הוא בגלוי, כקצף על פני המים, וחימה הוא בסתר. וזאת קושית הגמ' (מגילה יב:) אמאי דלקה ביה כולי האי - ר"ל כיון שכבר קצף בגלוי, כמ"ש: וַיִּקְצֹף הַמֶּלֶךְ, למה שוב בער בו כל כך? הא דרכו של אדם כשקוצף בגלוי חמתו שככה. ואמאי דלקה "ביה" - פי' מבפנים. ומתרץ ששלחה לו בזיונות אהורייריה שומר